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Mayer A. Armin Mayer. Traditionally the domain of scientists, the history of science became an independent field of inquiry only in the twentieth century and mostly after the Second World War. This process of emancipation was accompanied by a historiographical departure from previous, 'scientistic' practices, a transformation often attributed to influences from sociology, philosophy and history. Similarly, the liberal humanists who controlled the Cambridge History of Science Committee after emphasized that their contribution lay in the special expertise they, as trained historians, brought to the venture.

However, the scientists who had founded the Committee in the s had already advocated a sophisticated contextual approach: innovation in the history of science thus clearly came also from within the ranks of scientists who practised in the field. Moreover, unlike their scientist predecessors on the Cambridge Committee, the liberal humanists supported a positivistic protocol that has since been criticized for its failure to properly contextualize early modern science.

Lastly, while celebrating the rise of modern science as an international achievement, the liberal humanists also emphasized the peculiar Englishness of the phenomenon. In this respect, too, their outlook had much in common with the practices from which they attempted to distance their project. Edit this record.

Mark as duplicate. Find it on Scholar. Copenhaver; 7. Astrology H. Darrel Rutkin; 8. Astronomy William Donahue; 9. Acoustics and optics Paolo Mancosu; Mechanics Domenico Beroloni Meli; The mechanical arts Jim Bennett; Pure mathematics Kirsti Andersen and Henk J.

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Bos; Part IV. Cultural Meanings of Natural Knowledge: 1. Religion Rivka Feldhay; 2. Literature Mary Baine Campbell; 3. Art Carmen Nickrasz and Claudia Swan; 4. Gender Dorinda Outram; 5. European expansion and self-definition Klaus A. Vogel translated by Alisha Rankin. Customer Reviews Review this book. Media reviews.

Toby E. Huff, Ph.D.

This book is an excellent source for current thinking on Early Modern Science. The chapters are writtten by the leading shcolars n their respective fields.

This book, along with the rest of the Cambridge History of Science series, belongs in all academic and large public libraries. The breadth and range of the volume is breathtaking and, hard as I tried, I could think of little that was lacking As such they constitute a useful disciplinary resource for teachers but also mark the way for the next generation of extensions, revisioins and syntheses. Current promotions.

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The Wood for the Trees. The River Itchen at Martyr Worthy. New Keynesian economics was created partially in response to New Classical economics, and deals with how inefficiencies in the market create a need for control by a central bank or government. The above "history of economics" reflects modern economic textbooks and this means that the last stage of a science is represented as the culmination of its history Kuhn , The " invisible hand " mentioned in a lost page in the middle of a chapter in the middle of the " Wealth of Nations ", , advances as Smith's central message.

The Cambridge History of Science: Volume 3, Early Modern Science

That this "invisible hand" prefers "the support of domestic to foreign industry" is cleansed—often without indication that part of the citation is truncated. The end of the 19th century marks the start of psychology as a scientific enterprise. The year is commonly seen as the start of psychology as an independent field of study. In that year Wilhelm Wundt founded the first laboratory dedicated exclusively to psychological research in Leipzig.

Other important early contributors to the field include Hermann Ebbinghaus a pioneer in memory studies , Ivan Pavlov who discovered classical conditioning , William James , and Sigmund Freud. Freud's influence has been enormous, though more as cultural icon than a force in scientific psychology. The 20th century saw a rejection of Freud's theories as being too unscientific, and a reaction against Edward Titchener 's atomistic approach of the mind. This led to the formulation of behaviorism by John B. Watson , which was popularized by B.

Behaviorism proposed epistemologically limiting psychological study to overt behavior, since that could be reliably measured. Scientific knowledge of the "mind" was considered too metaphysical, hence impossible to achieve. The final decades of the 20th century have seen the rise of a new interdisciplinary approach to studying human psychology, known collectively as cognitive science. Cognitive science again considers the mind as a subject for investigation, using the tools of psychology , linguistics , computer science , philosophy , and neurobiology.

New methods of visualizing the activity of the brain, such as PET scans and CAT scans , began to exert their influence as well, leading some researchers to investigate the mind by investigating the brain, rather than cognition. These new forms of investigation assume that a wide understanding of the human mind is possible, and that such an understanding may be applied to other research domains, such as artificial intelligence.

Ibn Khaldun can be regarded as the earliest scientific systematic sociologist.

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Among many early sociologists e. Max Weber was concerned with the modernization of society through the concept of rationalization , which he believed would trap individuals in an "iron cage" of rational thought. Some sociologists, including Georg Simmel and W. Du Bois , utilized more microsociological , qualitative analyses. This microlevel approach played an important role in American sociology, with the theories of George Herbert Mead and his student Herbert Blumer resulting in the creation of the symbolic interactionism approach to sociology.

In particular, just Auguste Comte, illustrated with his work the transition from a theological to a metaphysical stage and, from this, to a positive stage. Comte took care of the classification of the sciences as well as a transit of humanity towards a situation of progress attributable to a re-examination of nature according to the affirmation of 'sociality' as the basis of the scientifically interpreted society. American sociology in the s and s was dominated largely by Talcott Parsons , who argued that aspects of society that promoted structural integration were therefore "functional".

This structural functionalism approach was questioned in the s, when sociologists came to see this approach as merely a justification for inequalities present in the status quo. In reaction, conflict theory was developed, which was based in part on the philosophies of Karl Marx. Conflict theorists saw society as an arena in which different groups compete for control over resources. Symbolic interactionism also came to be regarded as central to sociological thinking. Erving Goffman saw social interactions as a stage performance, with individuals preparing "backstage" and attempting to control their audience through impression management.

While these theories are currently prominent in sociological thought, other approaches exist, including feminist theory , post-structuralism , rational choice theory , and postmodernism. Anthropology can best be understood as an outgrowth of the Age of Enlightenment.

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  8. It was during this period that Europeans attempted systematically to study human behaviour. Traditions of jurisprudence, history, philology and sociology developed during this time and informed the development of the social sciences of which anthropology was a part. At the same time, the romantic reaction to the Enlightenment produced thinkers such as Johann Gottfried Herder and later Wilhelm Dilthey whose work formed the basis for the culture concept which is central to the discipline.

    Traditionally, much of the history of the subject was based on colonial encounters between Western Europe and the rest of the world, and much of 18th- and 19th-century anthropology is now classed as scientific racism.